All you need to know about truffles

The Truffles are a symbiotic fungus, eatable, with an exceptional taste that grow on the roots of some species of trees, which formed through symbiosis, specific organs called mycorrhiza.
The Truffle is the product of a symbiotic association between a Party and a root vegetable.
Through the micorize the Truffle exchange food and nutrition
It usually occurs in spring between April and June. At first develop as a small bucket whose sides will heal and will form a tuber
Then the body develops from this whole black truffle, wrapped in a crust with small warts or scales that, while protective role, contributes to breathing and feeding tuber.

As a comparison, if the animal products, caviar is placed first, then the products of vegetable origin, truffles can occupy the same place.

In France, truffles are also called by connoisseurs “pearls of the earth”, or diamond black

Under DEX, truffles are edible, culture, blackish-purple, in the form of potatoes, which grow in the ground. The truffles are fungi mycorrhiza (fungus and rhiza mykes = = root).

Price truffles

It is worth mentioning that exaggerate their weight in gold. In Depending on the species, season, size and price point is about. $ 900 / g or 453 pounds that is 2,000 euro / kg.
At auction in Hong Kong sold a copy of 1.2 kg with 95,000 euros and another 1.5 kg with 125,000 euro.

Truffles in the world

There are hundreds of species of truffles, but the fruiting body of some (mostly in the genus ‘Tuber’) are highly prized as a food. The 18th-century French gastronome Brillat-Savarin called these truffles “the diamond of the kitchen”. Edible truffles are held in high esteem in French, Spanish, northern Italian and Croatian cooking, as well as in international haute cuisine.
The genome sequence of the Périgord black truffle was published in March 2010.[1]
Tuber aestivum
Tuber bituminatum
Tuber bonnetii
Tuber borchii
Tuber brumale
Tuber gibbosum
Tuber macrosporum
Tuber maculatum
Tuber magnatum
Tuber melanosporum
Tuber mesentericum
Tuber nitidum
Tuber puberulum
Tuber rapaeodorum
Tuber rufum
Tuber scleroneuron
Tuber separans
Tuber sinense

The first mention of truffles appears in the inscriptions of the neo-Sumerians regarding their Amorite enemy’s eating habits (Third Dynasty of Ur, 20th century[20]) and later in writings of Theophrastus in the fourth century BC. In classical times, their origins were a mystery that challenged many; Plutarch and others thought them to be the result of lightning, warmth and water in the soil, while Juvenal thought thunder and rain to be instrumental in their origin. Cicero deemed them children of the earth, while Dioscorides thought they were tuberous roots.[19]
Italy in the Classical period produced three kinds of truffles: the Tuber melanosporum, the Tuber magnificanus and the Tuber magnatum. The Romans, however, only used the terfez (Terfezia bouderi), a fungus of similar appearance, which the Romans called truffles, and which is sometimes called “desert truffle”. Terfez used in Rome came from Lesbos, Carthage, and especially Libya, where the coastal climate was less dry in ancient times.[19] Their substance is pale, tinged with rose. Unlike truffles, terfez have no taste of their own. The Romans used the terfez as a carrier of flavour, because the terfez have the property to absorb surrounding flavours. Indeed, Roman cuisine used many spices and flavours, and terfez were perfect in that context.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truffle_%28fungus%29

Truffles in Romania

In Romania truffles are found in hilly and mountainous with deciduous and pine forests and are sold at home and abroad especially in Italy, Spain, black truffle and a white summer truffle
In Romania grow several varieties of white and black truffles
The main varieties of truffles found in Romania

Tuber magnatum Pico – Truffle white summer truffle
It has a spherical shape, with many making it irregular groove. Outer surface is smooth and velvety. Ocher color varies from pale to dark beige or green. The interior or “Glebe” is clear, dirty white and yellow with white veins. Pleasant scent and flavor, very different than other truffles garlic makes this truffle species is unique in ei.Traieste in symbiosis with oak, lime, poplar and willow, and rarely can be found among other white trufe.Trufa to grow and develop needs special soil and climatic conditions: the earth must be soft and moist most of the time of year, should have calcium needs good air circulation. It is therefore obvious that not all soils have these characteristics and environmental factors make the white truffle is a rare fruit. Harvesting period lasts from September until December.

Tuber aestivum Vitt – Summer Truffle
Truffle summer known as the black summer truffle has an irregular shape with pyramidal warts, brown. On the outside is brown or blackish and inside ribs is rife with white-gray or yellowish white. Its intense flavor and grows in sandy and clay soil of the forest area. You can easily find in the forests of hornbeam, beech, lime, hazel and oak which grows in symbiosis with their roots. It can be appreciated and a truffle harvest in July until September.

Tuber Bruma – Winter Truffle
Are smaller than other truffles and an odor to them. The exterior is smoother than the other black truffles, dark brown or black color is blue. The interior is lighter in color: gray-white ash up. It is found in the same places as the black summer truffle, the optimal harvesting period is from mid November until March.

Tuber Macrosporum – Truffle large spore
It is a Truffle appreciated, but is rarely encountered a pretentious Truffle to climate and soil conditions. Has a fragrance similar to that of white truffle, and the exterior is reddish brown. The best time to harvest is from October until December.

Tuber Mesentericum
It is very similar to a truffle black truffle summer but is distinguished by its intense smell of phenol. The surface is dark, with warts and is consistent and whitish inside. Grown in symbiosis with oak and hazel. The best time to harvest is from October to December.

Choiromyces meandriformis – Truffle porceasca
It has a very strong smell and can reach a weight of 650g. It is sometimes found in surface soil and can be found even without dogs. The best time to harvest is from June to October.

http://www.trufe.ro/trufe-in-romania

Breeding

Truffles almost any fungus that reproduces by spores. Spores are spread by insects, animals and water. Mycorrhiza spores make up the various plants, such as oak, poplar, lime and hazel. This is beneficial symbiosis is beneficial for both sides because the fungus helps the tree absorb minerals subsite, and the fungus receives nutrients from the tree resulting from the process of assimilation.
A similar symbiosis can be observed in beans and proumb where beans help fix nitrogen in maize roots as small “bags” like the root ball attached.

Recipes and how to cook

Good for fine cuisine
Pasta house with black truffles

Ingredients needed 3 ounces
200 g flour
1 / 2 teaspoon salt
5 yellow eggs
1 tablespoon olive oil
30 g of black winter truffles
salt, 1 small white onion May
100 g butter
freshly ground pepper

Preparation time: 15 minutes
Time yeast: at least 1 hour
Actual cooking time: 10 minutes

Method recipe

1. Knead dough from a dough of flour, salt, egg yolks and oil. If dough is too sticky raw, add a little flour. Pâinisoare ridden in this stretch it into a transparent form and let them rise, at room temperature for at least an hour. then stretch the dough divided into smaller pieces in a little flour, leave it for a while to dry, after which a cut in strips wide.

2. Rub black winter truffles with a nail brush under running cold water jLt. If the outer rind is too hard or we created a clean surface and no depth, then we cut the mushrooms into thin slices.

3. Tocam clean white onion and sliced thin, heat the butter and onion melcisorii Calima in it.

4. Keep pasta to a boil for about 2-4 minutes in hot water, meanwhile pull the mushroom slices in butter and fry constantly turning from one side to the other. Season to taste with salt and pepper, then add them to pasta, drip of water.

Important to know
Black winter truffles are true delicacies that can be purchased only between November and March. The flavor of this type of fungus is noble and very tasty-ass unconscious, but unfortunately they are all in agreement directly with its price. Thanks to vigorous taste more than 10 grams of truffles go for a single serving.

Pasta with black truffles home – traditional Romanian Recipes
It fits perfectly a Trebbiano wine or mineral water garnished with lemon slices.

Although these are truly delicious pasta when using lots of butter, I prefer to make a, just because of many calories and 40 g of butter at the end and mix well add 80 g of double cream. At the end, sprinkle black pepper, coarse ground.

http://www.trufe.ro/retete-cu-trufe

Truffle hunting in Romania

The truffles are collected in certain breeds of dog breed is best known dresati.Cea Lagotto Romagnolo the train costs between 2,000 and 5,000 euros. Dogs are sniffing, and then scratch about 20 cm, sometimes over 50 cm, to give the nest of mushrooms, then sit and wait for his master to come and pick them
Those who can not afford a dog uses and pigs, but do not have the same output because they can consume. ?

Prices – records

The record price paid for a single white Truffle WAS set in December 2007, When Macau casino owner Stanley Ho paid U.S. $ 330,000 (£ 165,000) for a specimen weighing 1.5 NF (3.3 lb), discovered by Luciano Savini and his dog Rocco. Truffles One of the largest found in decades, it WAS Unearthed near Pisa and balance at year auction held simultaneously in Macau, Hong Kong and Florence. [11]
The White Truffle Tuber magnatum pico is found mostly in Northern and central Italy, while the Tuber borchii, whitish or Truffle, is found in Tuscany, Romagna, the Marche and Molise. Neither of These is as aromatic as thos from Piedmont. [8]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truffle_ (fungus)

Surse foto :

http://www.adevarul.ro/locale/oradea/oradea-bihor-trufe-lagotto-caini-romagnolo_0_263973774.html

http://www.replicahd.ro/replica_db/index.php?pagerun=2&p=2515&more=1&c=1&tb=1&pb=1

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truffle_%28fungus%29

Trufa este o ciuperca de simbioza, comestibile , cu un gust exceptional care cresc pe radacinile unor specii de arbori, cu care formeaza, prin simbioza, organe specifice numite micorize.
Trufa este produsul unei asocieri simbiotice intre o parte vegetala si o radacina.
Prin intermediul micorizelor are loc schimbul de elemnte nutritive dintre arbore si ciuperca
De obicei apar primavara intre aprilie si iunie. La inceput se dezvolta ca o cupa mica ale carei margini se vor reinchide si vor forma un tubercul
Apoi se dezvolta din acest ansamblu corpul trufei de culoare neagra, infasurat intr-o scoarta cu mici negi sau solzi care, pe linga rolul de protectie, contribuie si la respiratia si hranirea tuberculului.

Ca o comparative, daca dintre produsele de origine animala, icrele negre sunt plasate pe primul loc, atunci dintre produsele de origine vegetala, trufele pot ocupa, acelasi loc.

In Franta trufele se mai numesc de catre cunoscatori “ perle ale pamantului ”, sau diamante negre de Perigord.

Conform DEX, trufele sunt comestibile, de cultura, de culoare violet-negricioasa, in forma de cartofi, care cresc in pamant. Trufele sunt ciuperci micorizante (mykes = ciuperca si rhiza = radacina).

Trufele cresc si in tara noastra

In flora spontana a tarii noastre

Pretul trufelor

Nu este exagerata mentiunea ca valoreaza cat greutatea lor in aur. In funtie de specie, de sezon, de marime si aspect pretul este de cca. 900 dolari/pound adica pentru 453 g sau de 2000 euro/kg.
La licitatie in Hong Kong s-a vandut un exemplar de 1,2 kg cu 95.000 euro, iar altul de 1,5 kg cu 125.000 euro.

Trufe in Lume

Trufe in Romania
In Romania trufele se gasesc in zonele de deal si de munte cu paduri de foioase si de brad si se comercializeaza in tara si in afara tarii in special in Italia, Spania, trufa neagra si cu o trufa alba de vara
In Romania cresc cateva soiuri de trufe albe si negre
Principalele soiuri de trufe identificate pe teritoriul Romaniei

Tuber Magnatum Pico – Trufa alba, trufa varatica
Are o forma sferica, cu numeroase adincituri ceea ce o face neregulata. Suprafata exterioara este neteda si catifelata. Culoarea variaza de la ocru pal la crem inchis sau verzui. Interiorul sau “gleba” este clar, de culoare alba si galben murdar cu vinisoare albe. Parfumul placut si aromat, foarte diferit de cel de usturoi al altor trufe, face ca aceasta trufa sa fie unica in specia ei.Traieste in simbioza cu stejarul, teiul, plopul si salcia, si mai rar poate fi gasita linga alte trufe.Trufa alba, pentru a creste si a se dezvolta are nevoie de sol si conditii climaterice aparte: pamintul trebuie sa fie moale si umed in majoritatea timpului din an, trebuie sa aiba calciu si are nevoie de o buna circulatie a aerului. De aceea, este evident ca nu toate solurile au aceste caracteristici si factorii de mediu fac ca trufa alba sa fie un fruct rar. Perioada de cules dureaza din septembrie pina in decembrie.

Tuber Aestivum Vitt – Trufa de vara
Trufa de vara cunoscuta si sub numele de trufa neagra de vara are o forma neregulata cu negi piramidali, maronii. La exterior este maro sau negricioasa iar in interior este impinzita de nervuri, cu o culoare alb-gri sau alb-galbui. Are o aroma intensa si creste intr-un sol nisipos si argilos din zona de padure. Se poate gasi cu usurinta in padurile de carpen, fag, tei, alun si stejar unde creste in simbioza cu radacinile acestora. Este o trufa apreciata si se poate recolta din iulie pina in septembrie.

Tuber Brumale – Trufa de iarna
Are dimensiuni mai mici decit celelalte trufe si un miros diferit fata de acestea. Exteriorul este mai neted decit la celelalte trufe negre, culoarea fiind maro inchis sau negru albastrui. Interiorul este mai deschis la culoare: albicios pina la gri-cenusiu. Se gaseste in aceleasi locuri ca si trufa neagra de vara, perioada optima de recoltare fiind din mijlocul lui noiembrie pina in martie.

Tuber Macrosporum – Trufa cu spori mari
Este o trufa apreciata, dar se intilneste mai rar fiind o trufa pretentioasa la conditiile de clima si sol. Are un parfum asemanator cu cel al trufei albe, iar exteriorul este maro-rosiatic. Perioada optima de recoltare este din octombrie pina in decembrie.

Tuber Mesentericum
Este o trufa foarte asemanatoare cu trufa neagra de vara dar se distinge prin mirosul intens de fenol. Suprafata este intunecata si cu negi, iar interiorul este consistent si albicios. Creste in simbioza cu stejarul si alunul. Perioada optima de recoltare este octombrie-decembrie.

Choiromyces meandriformis – Trufa porceasca
Are un miros foarte puternic si poate ajunge la o greutate de 650g. Se gaseste uneori si la suprafata pamintului si se poate gasi chiar si fara ciini. Perioada optima de recoltare este iunie-octombrie.

http://www.trufe.ro/trufe-in-romania

Inmultire
Trufele ca aproape orice ciuperca se reproduce prin spori. Sporii sunt raspanditi de catre insecte, animale si apa. Sporii alcatuiesc micoriza cu diferite plante, precum stejarul, plopul, teiul si alunul. Aceasta simbioza este benefica este benefica pentru ambele parti, deoarece ciuperca ajuta copacul sa absoarba subsan?e minerale, iar ciuperca primeste de la copac substan?e nutritive rezultate prin procesul de asimilare.
O simbioza similara se poate observa la fasole si proumb, unde fasolea ajuta fixarea azotului la radacina porumbului sub forma unor mici “ pungi “ ca niste bile fixate pe radacina.

UTILIZARE TRUFE, moduri de preparare

Bune pentru gastronomia fina
Paste fainoase de casa cu trufe negre

Ingrediente necesare 3 portii
200 g de faina
1/ 2 de lingurita de sare
5 galbenuse de oua
1 lingura de ulei de masline
30 g de trufe negre de iarna
sare, 1 ceapa alba mai micuta
100 g de unt
piper proaspat macinat

Timp de pregatire: 15 minute
Timp pentru dospit: cel putin 1 ora
Timp efectiv pentru gatire: 10 minute

Mod de preparare reteta

1. Se framânta coca dintr-un aluat de faina, sare, galbenus de ou si ulei. Daca coca cruda este mult prea lipicioasa, se mai adauga putina faina. Framântam pâinisoare din aceasta pe care le intindem intr-o forma transparenta si le lasam sa dospeasca la temperatura camerei cel putin o ora. intindem apoi coca impartita in bucatele mai mici in putina faina, o lasam pentru un timp sa se usuce, dupa care o taiem in fâsii late.

2. Frecam trufele negre de iarna cu o periuta de unghii sub jet jLt de apa rece. Daca coaja lor exterioara este mult prea tare sau creata o vom curata superficial si nu in profunzime, dupa care vom taia ciuperca in feliute subtiri.

3. Curatam ceapa alba si o tocam in felii subtiri, incingem untul si calim in el melcisorii de ceapa.

4. Pastele fainoase se lasa sa dea in clocot circa 2-4 minute in apa fierbinte, intre timp feliutele de ciuperci se trag in unt si se prajesc intorcându-se in continuu de pe o parte pe cealalta. Se condimenteaza dupa gust cu sare si cu piper, dupa care se adauga si ele pastelor fainoase, bine scurse de apa.
Important de stiut
Trufele negre de iarna sunt adevarate delicatese care pot fi cumparate doar intre lunile noiembrie si martie. Aroma acestui tip de ciuperca nobila si deosebit de gustoasa este incon-fundabila, din pacate insa toate sunt in acord direct cu pretul acesteia. Datorita gustului sau plin de vigoare cel mult 10 g de trufe ajung pentru o singura portie.

Se potriveste de minune un vin de Trebbiano sau apa minerala garnisita cu feliute de lamâie.
Desi aceste paste fainoase sunt cu adevarat delicioase atunci când se foloseste mult unt, eu una prefer sa pun, din cauza multelor calorii doar 40 g de unt iar la sfârsit mai adaug si amestec bine 80 g de Creme Double. La sfârsit presar piper negru, macinat grosier.
Mai multe retete :

http://www.trufe.ro/retete-cu-trufe

Vanatoarea de trufe in Romania

Trufele se culeg cu anumite rase de caini dresati.Cea mai cunoscuta rasa este Lagotto Romagnolo care dresat costa intre 2000 si 5000 de euro. Cainii fie adulmeca, apoi scurma cam 20 cm, uneori si peste 50 cm, pana dau de cuibul de ciuperci, dupa care stau si asteapta ca stapanul sa vina sa le culeaga
Cei care nu isi permit un astfel de caine utilizeaza si porcii, dar nu au acelasi randament deoarece acestia le pot consuma. ?

Preturi – recorduri

The record price paid for a single white truffle was set in December 2007, when Macau casino owner Stanley Ho paid US$330,000 (£165,000) for a specimen weighing 1.5 kilograms (3.3 lb), discovered by Luciano Savini and his dog Rocco. One of the largest truffles found in decades, it was unearthed near Pisa and sold at an auction held simultaneously in Macau, Hong Kong and Florence.[11]
The Tuber magnatum pico white truffle is found mostly in northern and central Italy, while the Tuber borchii, or whitish truffle, is found in Tuscany, Romagna, the Marche and Molise. Neither of these is as aromatic as those from Piedmont.[8]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truffle_%28fungus%29

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